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System Admin Sir Ahmad Kareem


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Old 08-04-2010, 10:46 PM
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Read Linux Terminal Commands; Working at linux console mode,

The first command to learn is ls which is used to list the directory content.

In the shell, type
Code:
ls /
then press <Enter>
to list the content of the root directory.
------------

To list the content of a certain directory, put the directory as an argument to the command 'ls'.

Type
Code:
ls /usr/ X11R6/
then press <Enter>
It will lead to show the contents of directory known at X11R6 available in folder usr
------------

The root directory contains all directories and files.

Every Linux user account has its own home directory in the /home directory and the user's login name is used as a subdirectory in /home.

Type
Code:
ls /home/
then press <Enter>
------------
Use the 'touch' command to create any new file eg: tmpfile..
type:
Code:
touch tmpfile
------------
'pwd' means print working directory. it is used to show current working directory.
Type
Code:
pwd
------------
'cd' means changing directory.
'cd /' means changing directory to the root directory.
Type
Code:
cd /
By pressing 'cd' alone without any parameter, the shell goes to the user's home directory.

------------
Type
Code:
cp tmpfile tmpfile1
and press <Enter>

The command copies the file 'tmpfile' (you have been already created using touch command ) to another file called 'tmpfile1'.
------------
Type
Code:
mkdir tmpdir
and press <Enter>

This line of command creates a directory called tmpdir.
------------
Type
Code:
mv tmpfile tmpdir/
and press <Enter>

'mv' stands for move.
This command moves the file tmpfile to the directory tmpdir.

The '/' sign is optional which means tmpdir is a directory.
------------
When you input
Code:
ls tmpdir/
the shell appends the 'tmpdir/' to the working directory, i.e. /home/bdg

So, 'tmpdir/' is relative to your current working directory.

You may also list the content of the directory with its absolute path, i.e.
ls /home/bdg/tmpdir/
------------
In different types of shells, '~' refers to the user's home directory.
------------
In this case,
Code:
ls ~/tmpdir/
means listing the contents of /home/bdg/tmpdir
------------
Type
Code:
ls -l
and press
The parameter 'l' means long listing.
------------
Use
Code:
 ls -a
By default, entries starting with '.' are not shown unless you use 'a' as a parameter.
You may use 'l' and 'a' together.

Enter
Code:
ls -al ..
The content of the upper level or (/home/) is printed. This is because '..' refers to the upper level.
------------
Type
Code:
cd
without giving any argument.
Run
Code:
pwd
You can see that you are now in your user directory. This is because running 'cd' without any parameters will return you to the user home directory.
------------
To move files, run
Code:
mv tmpfile1 tmpfile
where tmpfile1 is the source file and tmpfile is the destination file.

In the content list, the source file has been 'moved' to a new destination file. This action is equivalent to a rename.
------------
Run
Code:
mkdir tmpdir2
to create a new directory called tmpdir2.
------------
Run
Code:
rm tmpfile
to remove the file called tmpfile.
The file will disappeared.
------------
Run
Code:
rmdir tmpdir2
to remove the directory tmpdir2.
The directory tmpdir2 has disappered
------------
Run
Code:
rmdir tmpdir/
to delete the directory tmpdir.
You are not allowed to perform this function if the directory tmpdir is not empty.
Run
Code:
rm -r tmpdir/
where the parameter 'r' means removing content in the directory recursively.
------------
Go the the /bin directory.
This directory contains many of the Linux commands we frequently use.
For example,
Code:
cp, ls, mkdir, mv, pwd, rm, rmdir and touch
are all here.
------------
In your user home directory, create a directory called tmpdir1.
Create an empty file in the tmpdir1 directory.
View the content of that directory to make sure the file has been created.
Run
Code:
ln -s tmpdir1/ tmpdir2/
'ln' means link.
This command links tmpdir1 to a new directory called tmpdir2.
List the contents of the directory and you will see the two subdirectories.
List the contents of the directory called tmpdir1and you will see the content of the directory.
List the content of directory tmpdir2and you will see the content of the directory.

You see that the content of tmpdir2 is the same as tmpdir1.
This is because tmpdir2 is a link to tmpdir1.
Go to tmpdir2
Create a new file in tmpdir2
List the content to make sure the file has been created.
List the content of tmpdir1.

"../tmpdir1" means going down for one level. (/home/bdg/) means going up for one level to tmpdir1

You will find that the file has also been created in the tmpdir1 directory.

Linking is very useful in Linux operations. Later, you will find it especially helpful during software setup.

Go to the /home directory.
Create an empty file called tmpfile1.
You will find that you are not permitted to create this file.
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